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Tiger Löwe

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Tiger Löwe

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The rear of the tank held an engine compartment flanked by two separate rear compartments each containing a fuel tank and radiator.

The Germans had not developed an adequate diesel engine, so a petrol gasoline powerplant had to be used instead. The original engine utilised was a Although a good engine, it was underpowered for the vehicle.

From the st Tiger onwards, it was replaced by the upgraded HL P45, a The engine was in V-form, with two cylinder banks set at 60 degrees.

An inertia starter was mounted on its right side, driven via chain gears through a port in the rear wall. The engine could be lifted out through a hatch on the rear hull roof.

The engine drove the front sprockets through a drivetrain connecting to a transmission in the front portion of the lower hull; the front sprockets had to be mounted relatively low as a result.

The Krupp-designed tonne turret had a hydraulic motor whose pump was powered by mechanical drive from the engine.

A full rotation took about a minute. Another new feature was the Maybach-Olvar hydraulically controlled semi-automatic pre-selector gearbox.

The extreme weight of the tank also required a new steering system. It is unclear whether Klaue's patent ring brake was utilised in the Tiger brake design.

The clutch-and-brake system, typical for lighter vehicles, was retained only for emergencies. Normally, steering depended on a double differential , Henschel's development of the British Merritt-Brown system [27] first encountered in the Churchill tank.

The vehicle had an eight-speed gearbox, and the steering offered two fixed radii of turns on each gear, thus the Tiger had sixteen different radii of turn.

In neutral gear, the tracks could be turned in opposite directions, so the Tiger I pivoted in place.

The suspension used sixteen torsion bars , with eight suspension arms per side. To save space, the swing arms were leading on one side and trailing on the other.

There were three road wheels one of them double, closest to the track's centre on each arm, in a so-called Schachtellaufwerk overlapping and interleaved arrangement, similar to that pioneered on German half-tracked military vehicles of the pre-World War II era, with the Tiger I being the first all-tracked German AFV built in quantity to use such a road wheel arrangement.

Removing an inner wheel that had lost its solid rubber tire a common occurrence required the removal of up to nine other wheels first.

During the rainy period that brought on the autumn rasputitsa mud season and onwards into the winter conditions on the Eastern front , the roadwheels of a Schachtellaufwerk -equipped vehicle could also become packed with mud or snow that could then freeze.

Presumably, German engineers, based on the experience of the half tracks, felt that the improvement in off-road performance, track and wheel life, mobility with wheels missing or damaged, plus additional protection from enemy fire was worth the maintenance difficulties of a complex system vulnerable to mud and ice.

This approach was carried on, in various forms, to the Panther and the non-interleaved wheel design for the Tiger II.

At least 30 minutes of set-up time was required, with the turret and gun being locked in the forward position, and a large snorkel tube raised at the rear.

An inflatable doughnut-shaped ring sealed the turret ring. The two rear compartments each containing a fuel tank, radiator and fans were floodable.

The internal layout was typical of German tanks. Forward was an open crew compartment, with the driver and radio-operator seated at the front on either side of the gearbox.

Behind them the turret floor was surrounded by panels forming a continuous level surface. This helped the loader to retrieve the ammunition, which was mostly stowed above the tracks.

Three men were seated in the turret; the loader to the right of the gun facing to the rear, the gunner to the left of the gun, and the commander behind him.

There was also a folding seat on the right for the loader. Early versions of the Tiger I's turret included two pistol ports ; however, one of these was replaced with a loader escape hatch and the other deleted from later designs.

Post-war testing by the Allies found the tank to be uncomfortable and spartan. This was in contrast to German crews who found them to be spacious and comfortable.

The main problem with the Tiger was that its production required considerable resources in terms of manpower and material, which led to it being expensive: the Tiger I cost over twice as much as a Panzer IV and four times as much as a StuG III assault gun.

From a technical point of view it was superior to its contemporaries, [40] and despite the low number produced, shortages in qualified crew and the considerable fuel requirement in a context of ever shrinking resources, Tiger tanks had a large impact in the war with Tigers including Tiger IIs destroying at least 10, enemy tanks, and 11, AT guns and artillery pieces in WW2.

This was achieved for the loss of 1, Tigers including large numbers of operational and strategic losses, i.

Production of the Tiger I began in August at the factory of Henschel und Sohn in Kassel , [42] initially at a rate of 25 per month and peaking in April at per month.

An official document of the time stated that the first Tiger I was completed in August 4. Deployed Tiger I's peaked at on 1 July In , Japan bought several specimens of German tank designs for study.

Many modifications were introduced during the production run to improve automotive performance, firepower and protection.

Simplification of the design was implemented, along with cuts due to raw material shortages. In alone, at least six revisions were made, starting with the removal of the Vorpanzer frontal armour shield from the pre-production models in April.

In May, mudguards bolted onto the side of the pre-production run were added, while removable mudguards saw full incorporation in September.

Smoke discharge canisters, three on each side of the turret, were added in August In later years, similar changes and updates were added, such as the addition of Zimmerit a non-magnetic anti-mine coating , in late The humorous and somewhat racy crew manual, the Tigerfibel , was the first of its kind for the German Army and its success resulted in more unorthodox manuals that attempted to emulate its style.

By September at the latest, the Allies had information about the production of the Tiger tank. The resistance group around the later executed priest Heinrich Maier sent corresponding documents to the American Office of Strategic Services.

With the location sketches of the manufacturing facilities, the Allied bombers were given precise air strikes. Among other variants of the Tiger, a citadel, heavily armoured self-propelled rocket projector, today commonly known as the Sturmtiger , was built.

In Italy, a demolition carrier version of the Tiger I without a main gun was built by maintenance crews in an effort to find a way to clear minefields.

It is often misidentified as a BergeTiger recovery vehicle. As many as three may have been built. It carried a demolition charge on a small crane on the turret in place of the main gun.

It was to move up to a minefield and drop the charge, back away, and then set the charge off to clear the minefield. There is no verification of any being used in combat.

These tanks were Tigers with modified engines to run on either compressed Towngas gas Stadtgas System or wood gas Holzgas System.

This was due to shortages in fuel supply. They used a mixture of turreted and turretless hulls.

They were used to train Tiger tank crews. They were not used in combat. E, which was the official designation until the end of the war.

A report prepared by the Waffenamt-Prüfwesen 1 gave the calculated probability of perforation at range, on which various adversaries would be defeated reliably at a side angle of 30 degrees to the incoming round.

Soviet ground trial testing conducted in May determined that the 8. A hit to the driver's hatch would force it to collapse inwards and break apart.

When engaging targets, Tiger crews were encouraged to angle the hull to the or clock position 45 degrees relative to the target, an orientation referred to as the Mahlzeit Stellung.

The tank was also immune to Soviet anti-tank rifle fire to the sides and rear. Its large calibre 8. Therefore, comparing the Tiger with the Panther, for supporting the infantry and destroying fortifications, the Tiger offered superior firepower.

It was also key to dealing with towed anti-tank guns, according to German tank commander Otto Carius :. The destruction of an antitank gun was often accepted as nothing special by lay people and soldiers from other branches.

Only the destruction of other tanks counted as a success. On the other hand, antitank guns counted twice as much to the experienced tanker.

They were much more dangerous to us. The antitank cannon waited in ambush, well camouflaged, and magnificently set up in the terrain.

Because of that, it was very difficult to identify. It was also very difficult to hit because of its low height. Usually, we didn't make out the antitank guns until they had fired the first shot.

We were often hit right away, if the antitank crew was on top of things, because we had run into a wall of antitank guns. It was then advisable to keep as cool as possible and take care of the enemy, before the second aimed shot was fired.

Eager to make use of the powerful new weapon, Hitler ordered the vehicle be pressed into service months earlier than had been planned.

Many of these early models were plagued by problems with the transmission, which had difficulty handling the great weight of the vehicle if pushed too hard.

It took time for drivers to learn how to avoid overtaxing the engine and transmission, and many broke down.

The most significant event from this engagement was that one of the Tigers became stuck in swampy ground and had to be abandoned.

Captured largely intact, it enabled the Soviets to study the design and prepare countermeasures. The rd Heavy Panzer Battalion was deployed to the Don Front in the autumn of , but arrived too late to participate in Operation Winter Storm , the attempt to relieve Stalingrad.

It was subsequently engaged in heavy defensive fighting in the Rostov-on-Don and adjacent sectors in January and February The Tigers were hit by a number of M3 Lee tanks firing at a range of 80 to metres.

Two of the Lees were knocked out in this action. The Tiger tanks proved that they had excellent protection from enemy fire; this greatly increased the crew's trust in the quality of the armour.

On July , two heavy tank battalions rd and th took part in Operation Citadel resulting in the Battle of Kursk with one battalion each on the northern th and southern rd flanks of the Kursk salient the operation was designed to encircle.

However, the operation failed and the Germans were again put on the defensive. The resulting withdrawal led to the loss of many broken-down Tigers which were left unrecovered, battalions unable to do required maintenance or repairs.

On 11 April , a Tiger I destroyed three M4 Sherman tanks and an armoured car advancing on a road.

The tank's weight significantly limited its use of bridges. For this reason, the Tiger was built with water tight hatches and a snorkel device that allowed it to ford water obstacles four metres deep.

The tank's weight also made driving through buildings risky, as the presence of a cellar could result in a sudden drop. Another weakness was the slow traverse of the hydraulically operated turret.

Due to reliability problems with the Maybach HL TRM P45, which was delivered within the first production batch of Tigers, performance for its maximum power output at high gear ratio could not be fulfilled.

The engine limitation was alleviated only by the adoption of the Maybach HL This was not recommended for normal operation, and was discouraged in training.

Thus, despite the Tiger being nearly twice as heavy, its speed was comparatively respectable. Tiger I tanks needed a high degree of support.

It required two or sometimes three of the standard German Sd. Tiger crews often resorted to using another Tiger to tow the damaged vehicle, but this was not recommended as it often caused overheating and engine breakdown.

The low-mounted sprocket limited the obstacle clearance height. The tracks also had a tendency to override the rear sprocket, resulting in immobilisation.

If a track overrode and jammed, two Tigers were normally needed to tow the tank. The jammed track was also a big problem itself, since due to high tension, it was often impossible to split the track by removing the track pins.

The track sometimes had to be blown apart with a small explosive charge. Tigers were usually employed in separate heavy tank battalions schwere Panzer-Abteilung under army command.

These battalions would be deployed to critical sectors, either for breakthrough operations or, more typically, counter-attacks. The Tiger was originally designed to be an offensive breakthrough weapon, but by the time it went into action, the military situation had changed dramatically, and its main use was on the defensive, as a mobile anti-tank and infantry gun support weapon.

As a result, there are almost no instances where a Tiger battalion went into combat at anything close to full strength.

Against the Soviet and Western Allied production numbers, even a kill ratio was not sufficient. These numbers must be set against the opportunity cost of the expensive Tiger.

The British had observed the gradual increase in German AFV armour and firepower since and had anticipated the need for more powerful anti-tank guns.

Work on the Efforts were hastened to get cruiser tanks armed with pounder guns into operation. The Sherman Firefly , armed with the pounder, was a notable success even though it was only intended to be a stopgap design.

Fireflies were successfully used against Tigers; in one engagement, a single Firefly destroyed three Tigers in 12 minutes with five rounds.

In the British introduced an APDS round for the pounder, which increased penetration performance considerably. A small number of Ts were again fitted with a tank version of the ZiS-2, the ZiS-4, but it could not fire an adequate high-explosive round, making it an unsuitable tank gun.

Firing trials of the new 85 mm D-5T also had proved disappointing. There was a short production run of KV tanks, which were sent to the front beginning in September with production ending by December It also matched the firepower of the heavier IS tank in a more cost effective package resulting in a repetition of the events which heralded the decline of KV-1 production.

The SU was intended to be a close-support gun for use against German fortifications rather than armour; however, it shared among the later fielded ISU, the nickname Zveroboy "beast killer" , for its rare ability to knock out German heavy tanks.

Its high-explosive rounds were powerful enough to cause significant damage to a tank, occasionally ripping the turret off outright.

However, the size and weight of the ammunition meant both vehicles had a low rate of fire, and each could carry only 20 rounds.

On 21 April , a Tiger I of the th German heavy tank battalion , with turret number , was captured on a hill called Djebel Djaffa in Tunisia.

A 6-pounder solid shot from a Churchill tank of the British 48th Royal Tank Regiment hit the Tiger's gun barrel and ricocheted into its turret ring, jamming its traverse and wounding the commander.

The crew bailed out and the tank was captured. In June , the tank was removed from display at the museum and work began on its restoration.

This was carried out both by the museum and the Army Base Repair Organisation and involved an almost complete disassembly of the tank. The Maybach HL engine from the museum's Tiger II was installed the Tiger's original Maybach HL had been sectioned for display [92] , along with a modern fire-suppressant system in the engine compartment.

In December , Tiger returned to the museum, restored and in running condition. Given the low number of just over 1, Tiger Is produced during World War II, very few survived the war and the subsequent post-war scrapping drives.

Many large components have been salvaged over the years, but the discovery of a more or less and generally complete vehicle has so far eluded armour enthusiasts and tank collectors.

In addition to Tiger , six other Tiger I tanks survive as of April at these following locations:.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Tiger 1. German heavy tank, WWII. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Ricognitore Aumenta il raggio visivo del veicolo.

Ripetitore Aumenta la portata del segnale dei veicoli alleati che si trovano nel proprio raggio. Riparazioni Riduce il tempo di riparazione dei moduli distrutti.

Servente meticoloso Aumenta la resistenza della stiva delle munizioni. Amplificatore di segnale Aumenta la portata del segnale del veicolo.

Percezione amplificata Aumenta il raggio visivo del veicolo. Sesto senso Mostra una lampadina tre secondi dopo essere stati individuati.

Campione di guida Riduce la dispersione durante la guida. Mano ferma Riduce la dispersione durante il brandeggio della torretta.

Lo scafo deve rimanere immobile per almeno 3 secondi. Rivestimento anti-schegge Riduce i danni subiti con le speronate e le esplosioni.

Cassetta degli attrezzi Riduce il tempo di riparazione dei moduli distrutti. Stiva munizioni umidificata Aumenta gli HP della stiva delle munizioni.

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Tiger Löwe Video

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Il Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausf. B conosciuto anche col numero di identificazione dell'esercito Sonderkraftfahrzeug Sd. Il suo nome, spesso letteralmente tradotto nell' inglese King Tiger e indicato dalle forze britanniche anche come Royal Tiger.

Nonostante il legame dato dal nome, la struttura del Tiger II era completamente diversa da quella del Tiger I e richiamava quella del Panzer V Panther , con l'inclinazione dello scafo anteriore ripresa dal T russo, in grado di ridurre notevolmente i danni delle granate perforanti usate dai cannoni anticarro.

La torretta di pre-produzione dei primi 50 esemplari di Tiger II, era prodotta e progettata dalla Krupp , di forma tondeggiante e piuttosto sfuggente, era spessa mm sul frontale, 80 mm ai lati e sul retro; tuttavia presentava inferiormente una trappola per i colpi.

Le munizioni erano generalmente:. Le sole Pzgr. Tra il gennaio e il marzo vennero prodotti esemplari, ognuno con un numero di identificazione individuale stampato sulla torretta.

Queste le produzioni:. Nel tardo la Krupp propose di montare sul carro un nuovo cannone, il I primi Tiger II furono distribuiti ai reparti d'addestramento tra il gennaio e il maggio , e solamente a giugno i primi esemplari furono consegnati ai reparti operativi: tra questi vi fu lo schwere Panzerabteilung , che con a disposizione circa 14 Tiger II fu il primo reparto a utilizzare il nuovo carro contro gli Alleati in Normandia , tra Troarn e Demouville il 18 luglio I Tiger II parteciparono anche all' offensiva del lago Balaton del marzo , alla battaglia delle Alture di Seelow nell'aprile del e alla battaglia di Berlino al termine della guerra.

Scavando negli archivi si ha anzi un quadro di una macchina efficiente, mobile e relativamente veloce considerando il suo peso.

In effetti, all'inizio, il Tiger II era affetto da una serie di problemi sia all'impianto propulsore che al treno di rotolamento, ma con una serie di prove ed interventi questi problemi furono gradualmente superati.

Rimaneva comunque una macchina con le sue componenti meccaniche sempre o comunque spesso sovrastressate, soprattutto la trasmissione, che richiedeva un pilotaggio attento.

L'insufficiente addestramento dei piloti era quindi spesso causa delle frequenti rotture della trasmissione.

Fonte: kingtiger Heavy Tank Sono attualmente conservati otto esemplari del carro armato [1]. It carried a demolition charge on a small crane on the turret in place of the main gun.

It was to move up to a minefield and drop the charge, back away, and then set the charge off to clear the minefield. There is no verification of any being used in combat.

These tanks were Tigers with modified engines to run on either compressed Towngas gas Stadtgas System or wood gas Holzgas System. This was due to shortages in fuel supply.

They used a mixture of turreted and turretless hulls. They were used to train Tiger tank crews. They were not used in combat. E, which was the official designation until the end of the war.

A report prepared by the Waffenamt-Prüfwesen 1 gave the calculated probability of perforation at range, on which various adversaries would be defeated reliably at a side angle of 30 degrees to the incoming round.

Soviet ground trial testing conducted in May determined that the 8. A hit to the driver's hatch would force it to collapse inwards and break apart.

When engaging targets, Tiger crews were encouraged to angle the hull to the or clock position 45 degrees relative to the target, an orientation referred to as the Mahlzeit Stellung.

The tank was also immune to Soviet anti-tank rifle fire to the sides and rear. Its large calibre 8. Therefore, comparing the Tiger with the Panther, for supporting the infantry and destroying fortifications, the Tiger offered superior firepower.

It was also key to dealing with towed anti-tank guns, according to German tank commander Otto Carius :. The destruction of an antitank gun was often accepted as nothing special by lay people and soldiers from other branches.

Only the destruction of other tanks counted as a success. On the other hand, antitank guns counted twice as much to the experienced tanker.

They were much more dangerous to us. The antitank cannon waited in ambush, well camouflaged, and magnificently set up in the terrain.

Because of that, it was very difficult to identify. It was also very difficult to hit because of its low height.

Usually, we didn't make out the antitank guns until they had fired the first shot. We were often hit right away, if the antitank crew was on top of things, because we had run into a wall of antitank guns.

It was then advisable to keep as cool as possible and take care of the enemy, before the second aimed shot was fired. Eager to make use of the powerful new weapon, Hitler ordered the vehicle be pressed into service months earlier than had been planned.

Many of these early models were plagued by problems with the transmission, which had difficulty handling the great weight of the vehicle if pushed too hard.

It took time for drivers to learn how to avoid overtaxing the engine and transmission, and many broke down. The most significant event from this engagement was that one of the Tigers became stuck in swampy ground and had to be abandoned.

Captured largely intact, it enabled the Soviets to study the design and prepare countermeasures. The rd Heavy Panzer Battalion was deployed to the Don Front in the autumn of , but arrived too late to participate in Operation Winter Storm , the attempt to relieve Stalingrad.

It was subsequently engaged in heavy defensive fighting in the Rostov-on-Don and adjacent sectors in January and February The Tigers were hit by a number of M3 Lee tanks firing at a range of 80 to metres.

Two of the Lees were knocked out in this action. The Tiger tanks proved that they had excellent protection from enemy fire; this greatly increased the crew's trust in the quality of the armour.

On July , two heavy tank battalions rd and th took part in Operation Citadel resulting in the Battle of Kursk with one battalion each on the northern th and southern rd flanks of the Kursk salient the operation was designed to encircle.

However, the operation failed and the Germans were again put on the defensive. The resulting withdrawal led to the loss of many broken-down Tigers which were left unrecovered, battalions unable to do required maintenance or repairs.

On 11 April , a Tiger I destroyed three M4 Sherman tanks and an armoured car advancing on a road. The tank's weight significantly limited its use of bridges.

For this reason, the Tiger was built with water tight hatches and a snorkel device that allowed it to ford water obstacles four metres deep.

The tank's weight also made driving through buildings risky, as the presence of a cellar could result in a sudden drop.

Another weakness was the slow traverse of the hydraulically operated turret. Due to reliability problems with the Maybach HL TRM P45, which was delivered within the first production batch of Tigers, performance for its maximum power output at high gear ratio could not be fulfilled.

The engine limitation was alleviated only by the adoption of the Maybach HL This was not recommended for normal operation, and was discouraged in training.

Thus, despite the Tiger being nearly twice as heavy, its speed was comparatively respectable. Tiger I tanks needed a high degree of support.

It required two or sometimes three of the standard German Sd. Tiger crews often resorted to using another Tiger to tow the damaged vehicle, but this was not recommended as it often caused overheating and engine breakdown.

The low-mounted sprocket limited the obstacle clearance height. The tracks also had a tendency to override the rear sprocket, resulting in immobilisation.

If a track overrode and jammed, two Tigers were normally needed to tow the tank. The jammed track was also a big problem itself, since due to high tension, it was often impossible to split the track by removing the track pins.

The track sometimes had to be blown apart with a small explosive charge. Tigers were usually employed in separate heavy tank battalions schwere Panzer-Abteilung under army command.

These battalions would be deployed to critical sectors, either for breakthrough operations or, more typically, counter-attacks.

The Tiger was originally designed to be an offensive breakthrough weapon, but by the time it went into action, the military situation had changed dramatically, and its main use was on the defensive, as a mobile anti-tank and infantry gun support weapon.

As a result, there are almost no instances where a Tiger battalion went into combat at anything close to full strength. Against the Soviet and Western Allied production numbers, even a kill ratio was not sufficient.

These numbers must be set against the opportunity cost of the expensive Tiger. The British had observed the gradual increase in German AFV armour and firepower since and had anticipated the need for more powerful anti-tank guns.

Work on the Efforts were hastened to get cruiser tanks armed with pounder guns into operation. The Sherman Firefly , armed with the pounder, was a notable success even though it was only intended to be a stopgap design.

Fireflies were successfully used against Tigers; in one engagement, a single Firefly destroyed three Tigers in 12 minutes with five rounds.

In the British introduced an APDS round for the pounder, which increased penetration performance considerably.

A small number of Ts were again fitted with a tank version of the ZiS-2, the ZiS-4, but it could not fire an adequate high-explosive round, making it an unsuitable tank gun.

Firing trials of the new 85 mm D-5T also had proved disappointing. There was a short production run of KV tanks, which were sent to the front beginning in September with production ending by December It also matched the firepower of the heavier IS tank in a more cost effective package resulting in a repetition of the events which heralded the decline of KV-1 production.

The SU was intended to be a close-support gun for use against German fortifications rather than armour; however, it shared among the later fielded ISU, the nickname Zveroboy "beast killer" , for its rare ability to knock out German heavy tanks.

Its high-explosive rounds were powerful enough to cause significant damage to a tank, occasionally ripping the turret off outright. However, the size and weight of the ammunition meant both vehicles had a low rate of fire, and each could carry only 20 rounds.

On 21 April , a Tiger I of the th German heavy tank battalion , with turret number , was captured on a hill called Djebel Djaffa in Tunisia.

A 6-pounder solid shot from a Churchill tank of the British 48th Royal Tank Regiment hit the Tiger's gun barrel and ricocheted into its turret ring, jamming its traverse and wounding the commander.

The crew bailed out and the tank was captured. In June , the tank was removed from display at the museum and work began on its restoration.

This was carried out both by the museum and the Army Base Repair Organisation and involved an almost complete disassembly of the tank.

The Maybach HL engine from the museum's Tiger II was installed the Tiger's original Maybach HL had been sectioned for display [92] , along with a modern fire-suppressant system in the engine compartment.

In December , Tiger returned to the museum, restored and in running condition. Given the low number of just over 1, Tiger Is produced during World War II, very few survived the war and the subsequent post-war scrapping drives.

Many large components have been salvaged over the years, but the discovery of a more or less and generally complete vehicle has so far eluded armour enthusiasts and tank collectors.

In addition to Tiger , six other Tiger I tanks survive as of April at these following locations:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Tiger 1. German heavy tank, WWII. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Type of Heavy tank. World War II tanks. List Category.

Main article: 8. This section needs additional citations for verification. Edwards , Tigers in the Mud [62].

Main article: Battle of Kursk. Main article: Tiger Jentz gives a revised number of 1,, including the prototype, the result of the most detailed investigation of the primary sources ever undertaken.

With the capture of an intact Tiger at Lake Lagoda the Soviets obtained data regarding the Tiger's technical and tactical capabilities.

By test firing the 8. By increasing the thickness of the armour and mounting it with a very heavy mm gun, the Soviet IS II became a very difficult tank to deal with.

David R. Voyageur Press. Armored Fighting Vehicles. German Tanks and Armoured Vehicles, — Retrieved 30 April Design features.

Zenith Imprint. Google Books. Retrieved 1 January IngramSparks Publishing. Retrieved 12 November Retrieved 3 September Archived from the original on 17 January Inside the Third Reich.

The Tiger I Information Center. The Russian Battlefield. Retrieved 20 October Archived from the original on 7 September Retrieved 21 January BBC News.

Anderson, Thomas Osprey Publishing. Mechanicsburg: Stackpole Books. The T in Combat. Jauza, Moscow. Albany, N.

London: Metrobooks. Translated by Edwards, Robert J. Stackpole Books. German Tanks at War.

London: Cassell. Tiger I in Combat. Coda Books Ltd. T in action. Tiger Tank: Owners' Workshop Manual. Haynes Publishing. Villers Bocage.

Battle Zone Normandy. Sutton Publishing. Tiger Tanks at War. Paul, MN: Zenith Press. Panzer Leader Reissue edition, ed.

New York: Da Capo Press. Sherman Firefly vs Tiger: Normandy Reading: Osprey Publishing. Navato, CA: Presidio Press.

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